Auraiya

About Auraiya

Collectorate Office Auraiya

On 17th September,1997 two tehsils named Auraiya and Bidhuna were seperated from district Etawah to form the new district named as Auraiya. It is situated on National Highway no. 2 (Mughal Sarai Road), it is 64 km. in the east of district headquarter of Etawah and 105 km. in west of Kanpur city. Auriya is having 7 blocks named Ajitmal, Bhagyanagar, Sahar, Bidhuna, Achalda, Erwakatra and Auraiya.

History of Auraiya

Under the Rohillas In 1760 A.D. Ahmad Shah Durrani invaded India; he was opposed in 1761 by the Marathas on the field of Panipat and inflicted them a signal defeat. Among other Maratha chieftains Govind Rao Pandit lost his life. Before his departure from India the Durrani chief consigned large tracts of country to the Rohilla chieftains, and while Dhunde Khan received Shikohabad, Inayat Khan, son of Hafiz Rahmat Khan received the district of Etawah.

This was then in the possession of the Marathas, and accordingly in 1762 a Rohilla force was sent under Mullah Mohsin Khan to wrest the assigned property from the Marathas. This force was opposed near the town of Etawah by Kishan Rao and Bala Rao Pandits, who were defeated and compelled to seek safety in flight across the Yamuna. Siege was then laid to the fort of Etawah by Mohsin Khan; but the fort was soon surrendered by its commander, and the district fell into the hands of the Rohillas.

The occupation, however, was nominal at first; the zamindars refused to pay revenue to Inayat Khan and, secure in their mud forts set his authority at defiance. Strong reinforcements were sent to the Rohillas, including some artillery, under Sheikh Kuber and Mullah Baz Khan, and many of the smaller forts were levelled to the grounds; but in their ravine fortresses the zamindars of Kamait in the trans-Yamuna tract still resisted the authority of Inayat Khan.

Hafiz Rahmat and Inayat Khan then came in person to Etawah and operations were vigorously pressed against the refractory zamindars. Ultimately an annual tribute was agreed to by the latter. Hafiz Rahmat then departed to Bareilly, and Rohilla garrisons were established at convenient places in the district. Meanwhile a new minister arose at Delhi called Najib Khan, better known as Najib-ud-daula, Amir-ul-umra, Shuja-ud-daula succeeded Safdar Jang as Nawab Wazir and occupied most of the Bangash possessions as far as Aligarh, with the exception of those granted by the Durrani to the Rohillas after the battle of Pandit.

But the wazir's hostility to the Farrukhabad Afghans had not abated one jot, and in 1762 he persuaded Najib-ud-daula to join him in an attack on Farrukhabad. The attack was beaten off by the aid of Hafiz Rahmat Khan and matters settled down peacefully.In 1766 the Marathas under Mulhar Rao, who had been awaiting their opportunity, crossed the Jamuna and attacked Phaphund , where a Rohilla force under Muhammad Hasan Khan eldest son of Mohsin Khan, was posted.

On receipt of this news Hafiz Rahmat advanced from Bareilly to oppose the Marathas. He was joined near Phaphund by Sheikh Kuber, the Rohilla governor of Etawah, and prepared to give battle; but Mulhar Rao refused to risk an engagement and once more retired across the Jamuna. The ambitions of Najib-ud-daula had been irritated by the intervention of the Rohillas on behalf of Ahmad Khan Bangladesh in 1762; and though he had been too busily engaged otherwise to pursue his plans of revenge before, he began in 1770 to plot the downfall of Hafiz Rahmat Khan.

Geography of Auraiya

The district of Auraiya lies in the southwestern portion of Uttar Pradesh 26° 21" and 27° 01" north latitude and 78° 45" and 79° 45" east longitude forms a part of the Kanpur Division.

It is bounded on the north by the districts of Kannauj, western border adjoins tehsil Bharthana of the Etawah district and the district of Gwalior. The eastern frontier marches with the district of Kanpur Dehat, and along the south lie Jalaun. The total area according to the statistics of 1991-92 is calculated to be 2054 square kilometer.

Auraiya lies entirely in the Gangeticplain, but its physical features vary considerably and are determined by the rivers which cross it. The area of Etawah and Auraiya districts is divisible into four portions of natural characteristics. The first of these consists of the country lying north-east of the Senger river, which runs across it from west to east almost parallel to the Yamuna; it includes the northern portions of tahsils Etawah and Bharthana.

The second tract lies south of the Senger and extends as far as the high lands immediately overlooking the Yamuna. It comprises a slightly undulating switch of country covering portions of Etawah and Bharthana and the bulk of a Auraiya Tehsil of Auraiya District. The tract includes the parts of some tehsils that adjoins the river Yamuna. Beyond the Yamuna, stretching from the borders of tahsil Bah in Agra to the confluence of the Sindh, Kuwari, Chambal and Yamuna rivers, lies the high and broken country formerly known as Janibrast. These tracts differ from each other in a very marked degree though each presents general conformity within its own limits.

Climate of Auraiya

Rainfall

The average annual rainfall in the district is 792 mm, however in the year 1998 in Zila Sankhikiya Patrika it was given 738 mm. About 85% of the annual normal rainfall in the district is received during the south west monsoon months from June to September, August being the rainiest month.

Temperature

After February there is a steady increase in temperature. May is generally the hottest month with the mean daily maximum temperature at about 42° C and the mean daily minimum at about 26° C. The nights are warmer in June than in May. The heat in the summer is intense and the hot, dry and dust-laden westerly winds which are common in the hot season makes the weather often dry.

In this season maximum temperatures on individual days sometimes reach 46° C or over. With the onset of the south-west monsoon over the district by about the third week of June there is appreciable drop in the day temperature and the weather becomes more bearable. But the nights still continue to be as warm as in the latter part of the summer. With the with drawl of the monsoon by the end of September there is slight increase in the day temperature.

There is a rapid drop in the night temperature after the with drawl of the monsoon. After November both day and night temperatures decrease rapidly till January, which is usually the coldest month with the mean daily maximum temperature about 23° C and the mean daily minimum temperature at about 8° C. During the cold season the district is affected by cold waves and fog and the minimum temperature occasionally goes down to 3° C.

Humidity

During the rainy season the relative humidity is generally high being over 70%. Thereafter the humidity decreases and by summer which is the driest part of the year the relative humidities in the afternoons become less than 30%.

Winds

Winds are generally light and mostly blow from directions between south-west and north-west. In May, the south-west monsoon season winds on many days blows also from directions between north-east and south-east.

Culture of Auraiya

Food

Wheat constitutes the staple food of the people, other materials commonly consumed here as food being maize, barley, gram and jowar. Chapaties prepared from kneaded wheat or corn flour are generally eaten with dal or gur and milk. The pulses consumed here are urd, arhar, moong, chana, masur etc. One major meal is taken at about 1 P.M. in the day.

Breakfast consists of tea and any of the Indian or western stuff. At night, people take a light meal. Among edible fats ghee, vanaspati and mustard oil are more commonly used. The pure ghee of Etawah is quite famous for its thickness and purity. Spicy diet is not preferred though people are quite fond of pickles, chutneys and bari-mangauris.

Dance and Music

Popular varieties of folk music prevalent through out western U.P. e.g. the Allaha, Phaag, Kajari and Rasiyas, etc. are popular in this district as well, and are sung at different times of the year. Folk songs known as Dhola, Unchari and Langadia are also very common in the villages. Bhajans, Kirtan in a chorus to the accomplishment of musical instruments is very much liked by the inhabitants of the district.

A number of open air performances, combining the rural style of folk music and dance with a central theme, are a regular feature of rural life in the district. The dance named Banjasha is one of the most popular folk dances of villagers of the district. Nautankis and dramas based on mythology are often staged which attract large gatherings, particularly in the villages.

Dress

The people of Auraiya have colorful and different attires. The Sari-blouse-petticoat trio is the most favourite dress of ladies of all denominations, though women in Dupatta-kurta-salwar combinations are usually met with.

The best known Auraiya outfit is the 'Sari'. This graceful attire is a rectangular piece of Cloth, normally 5 to 6 meters in length and over a meter in width. It is worn without any pins or buttons or fastenings. The tightly fitted short blouse worn under a sari draped over the wearer's shoulder, is known as the Pallav or palloo. The style, color and texture of a saree varies from one to another and may be made from cotton, silk or one of several man-made materials. Its ageless charm is provided from the fact that it is not cut or tailored for any particular size, and can fit any woman.

Another form of outfit supported by Indian women is known as Salwar-suit. Kurta is a long tunic worn over pyjama like trousers, drawn in at the waist and ankles, known as 'Salwar', or a tight fitting trouser known as 'Chudidaar'. This dress is popular among the Muslim and Punjabi ladies and unmarried Hindu girls. The collarless or mandarain collared kurta, can be worn over a chudidaar and is popular with both men and women.

The men in village use to wear the traditional attires like kurtas, lungis, dhotis and pyjama. The collerless Khadi (homespun cloth) jackets known as 'Nehru Jackets' are also popular. The muslim women wear the traditional all enveloping 'Burkha' and the men use to wear a round cap on their head.

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