Bareilly

About Bareilly

Collectorate Bareilly UP

Bareilly (Listeni/bəˈrɛli/; Hindi: बरेली, Urdu: بریلی‎) is a city in Bareilly district in the northern Indian state of Uttar Pradesh. Located on the Ramganga, it is the capital of Bareilly division and the geographical region of Rohilkhand. The city is 252 kilometres (157 mi) north of the state capital, Lucknow, and 250 kilometres (155 mi) east of the national capital, New Delhi. Bareilly is the fourth city in Uttar Pradesh with compressed natural gas (CNG) filling stations (after Lucknow, Kanpur and Agra). It is the seventh-largest metropolis in Uttar Pradesh and the 50th-largest in India.

The city, also known as Nath nagari (Land of Lord Shiva), Zari nagari and historically as Sanjashya (where the Buddha descended from Tushita to earth), is a centre for furniture manufacturing and trade in cotton, cereal and sugar. Its status grew with its inclusion on the "counter magnets" list of the National Capital Region (NCR), a list also including Hissar, Patiala, Kota and Gwalior. The city is also known as Bans-Bareilly. Although Bareilly is a production centre for cane (bans) furniture, "Bans Bareilly" is not derived from the bans market; it was named for two princes: Bansaldev and Baraldev, sons of Jagat Singh Katehriya, who founded the city in 1537. Bareilly's 2011 population was 898,167.

Bareilly was founded in 1537 by Basdeo, a Katehriya Rajput. The city was first mentioned by the historian Budayuni, who wrote that Husain Quli Khan was appointed the governor of "Bareilly and Sambhal" in 1568. The divisions and revenue of the district "being fixed by Todar Mal" were recorded by Abul Fazl in 1596. The foundation of the modern city of Bareilly was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657. In 1658, Bareilly became the headquarters of the province of Budaun. The Mughal policy of encouraging Afghan settlements to control the Katehriyas succeeded as the central government was strong. After Aurangzeb's death, the Afghans (who had become local potentates) began seizing and occupying and neighbouring villages. Multi-coloured political map Regions of Uttar Pradesh, including Rohilkhand (capital Bareilly) In 1623 two Afghan brothers from the Barech tribe (Shah Alam and Husain Khan) settled in the region, bringing other Pashtun settlers. With the immigration of Daud Khan, an Afghan slave originally from Roh, Afghanistan, the Afghan Rohillas rose to prominence. His adopted son, Ali Muhammad Khan, established his headquarters in the region and was named governor of Kateher by Aurangzeb; the region was known as "the land of the Ruhelas".[citation needed] After the fall of the Mughal Empire, many Pathans migrated from Rohilkhand. Bareilly (like other cities in Uttar Pradesh) experienced economic stagnation and poverty, leading to the migration of Rohilla Muslim Pathans to Suriname.

History of Bareilly

According to the epic Mahābhārata, Bareilly region (Panchala) is said to be the birthplace of Draupadi, who was also referred to as 'Panchali' (one from the kingdom of Panchāla) by Kṛishna (Lord Krishna). When Yudhisthira became the king of Hastinapura at the end of the Mahābhārata, Draupadi became his queen. The folklore says that Gautama Buddha had once visited the ancient fortress city of Ahicchattra in Bareilly. The Jain Tirthankara Parshva is said to have attained Kaivalya at Ahichhatra.

In the 12th century, the kingdom was under the rule by different clans of Kshatriya Rajputs. With the Islamic Turkic Invasion the region became a part of the Delhi Sultanate before getting absorbed in the emerging Mughal Empire. The foundation of the modern City of Bareilly was laid by Mukrand Rai in 1657.

Later the region became the capitol of Rohilkhand region before being handed over to Nawab Vazir of Awadh and then to East India Company (transferred to the British India) and later becoming an integral part of India. The region has, also, acted as a mint for a major part of its history.

From archaeological point of view the district of Bareilly is very rich. The extensive remains of Ahichhatra, the Capital town of Northern Panchala have been discovered near Ramnagar village of Aonla Tehsil in the district. It was during the first excavations at Ahichhatra (1940–44) that the painted grey ware, associated with the advent of the Aryans in the Ganges–Yamuna Valley, was recognised for the first time in the earliest levels of the site. Nearly five thousand coins belonging to periods earlier than that of Guptas have been recovered from Ahichhatra. It has also been one of the richest sites in India from the point of view of the total yield of terracotta. Some of the masterpieces of Indian terracotta art are from Ahichhatra. In fact the classification made of the terracotta human figurines from Ahichhatra on grounds of style and to some extent stratigraphy became a model for determining the stratigraphy of subsequent excavations at other sites in the Ganges Valley. On the basis of the existing material, the archaeology of the region helps us to get an idea of the cultural sequence from the beginning of the 2nd millennium BC up to the 11th century AD. Some ancient mounds in the district have also been discovered by the Deptt. of Ancient History and culture, Rohilkhand University, at Tihar-Khera (Fatehganj West), Pachaumi, Rahtuia, Kadarganj and Sainthal.

How to Reach

By Road :

Bareilly is well connected to cities in Uttar Pradesh and around through a network of National and State Highways. The city has regular buses to destinations like Jaipur, Agra, Mathura, Ghaziabad, New Delhi, Lucknow and Varanasi. Both Uttar Pradesh State Road Transport Corporation as well as private operates ply buses to and from the city.

By Train :

Bareilly falls on the busy Delhi-Kolkata line and is therefore well connected to most of the destinations in Uttar Pradesh and India.

Currently, following major railway stations serve the city

Bareilly Junction

C.B. Ganj Station

Chenheti Station

The main railway station in Bareilly is Bareilly Junction. The junction is well connected to cities like New Delhi, Agra, Kanpur, Lucknow, Benaras, Jaipur, Kolkata and Mumbai through a cluster of super fast and express trains.

By Air :

Indira Gandhi International Airport in New Delhi, about 250 kms to the west, is the nearest large airport. The airport at Pantnagar, about 70 kms north of Bareilly, has a direct flight to New Delhi.

Geography of Bareilly

Bareilly is in northern India, at 28°10′N 78°23′E. On its east are Pilibhit and Shahjahanpur, Rampur on the west, Udham Singh Nagar (Uttarakhand) to the north and Badaun to the south. The city is level and well-watered, sloping towards the south. Its soil is fertile, with groves of trees.

A rain forest in the north, known as the tarai, contains tigers, bears, deer and wild pigs. The river Sarda (or Gogra) forms the eastern boundary and is the principal waterway. The Ramganga receives most of the drainage from the Kumaon mountains, and the Deoha also receives many small streams. The Gomati (or Gumti) is also nearby.

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map Saharanpur Bijnor Meerut Amroha Rampur Gautam Budh Nagar Bareilly Pilibhit Lakhimpur Shahjahanpur Budaun Bahraich Shravasti Sitapur Hardoi Farrukhabad Aligarth Hathras Bulandshahr Mathura Agra Balrampur Sidharth Nagar Santkabir Nagar Maharajganj Kushinagar Gorakhpur Deoria Ballia Ghazipur Mau Azamgarh Ambedkar Nagar Basti Gonda Faizabad Barabanki Lucknow Unnao Kanpur Dehat Kanpur Nagar Auraiya Etawah Kannauj Mainpuri Firozabad Lalitpur Jhansi Jalaun Mahoba Hamirpur Banda Fatehpur Raibareilly Chitrakoot Allahabad Mirzapur Sonbhadra Chandauli Varanasi Sant Ravidas Nagar Jaunpur Kaushambi Pratapgarh Shamali Muzaffarnagar Baghpat Ghaziabad Hapur Moradabad Sambhal Etah Kasganj Amethi Sultanpur
 

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