Ghazipur

About Ghazipur

Lord Cornwallis Tomb Gazipur

The word Ghazipur does not figure as such in ancient Indian History, but according to some historians Raja Ghadhi, father of Maharsi Jamdagni was from this place. During that period this place was covered with dense forests and in it many Ashrams were situated like Yamdagni (father of Parasuram) Ashram, Parsuram Ashram, Madan Van etc.

The Maharshi Gautam's Ashram was near Ghazipur town some 16 Kms. east from the village Gauspur, Sarnath where Lord Buddha got enlightenment in 6th century B.C. It is about 65 km. west from this district headquarter & falls in Varanasi district. Thus it became a center of Budha's preachings during his time .

This town was an important centre during Buddhist period. The Chinese traveller Hiuen Tsang mentions this locality as "Chanchu" meaning the soil of battlefields which is signified by many important battles fought here.

History of Ghazipur

Khan alias Muhammad Tuglak established the Jaunpur as the capital under which the Ghazipur was ruled . In the regime of Zuna Khan, the Saiyyad Massod Ghazi established this town by defeating Raja Mandhata, the ancestor of brave King Prithvi Raj Chauhan.

In Lodhi Period, the Naseer Khan Nuhani was the Administrator of Ghazipur who changed its conditions. This Area was the main center during Mughal period when Babar took over the charge of Ghazipur and Muhammad Khan Nuhani became its administrator. In the reign of Akbar, the Afghan Ali Kuli Khan took over the charge of Ghazipur and developed the town Zamania.

After the death of Aurangzeb this area was taken by Jamindar Mansa Ram . Thereafter, Ghazipur came under the suzerainty of the Banaras state and Raja Balwant Singh, the Son of Mansa Ram became the King of Ghazipur.After the attack of Warren Hastings, the then Governor General of the British rule, this area was ruled over by various British rulers.

The Lord Cornwallis (famous for reforms in land) came to visit this place and accidentally died. In his memory a beautiful tomb was formed whichattracts the touristsIt is a land of great freedom fighters. Famous Mangal Pandey, leader of Cepoy mutiny was a son of this soil only.

The Famous Nilha Sahib Revolt is associated with this place where the Farmers revolted against the Britishers & they set on fire various Indigo Godowns. After independence, Ghazipur could not develop as it used to be in the past. But this soil gave brave soldiers like Brig. Usman, Param Veer Chakra awardee Veer Abdul Hameed, Ram Urgrah Pandey. In recent times Ghazipur showed its notable bravery in Kargil victory against Pakistan in 1999

Climate of Ghazipur

The Ghazipur is situated in eastern part of Uttar Pradesh, hence the climate of Ghazipur is not very hot or cold. The coldest months here are December-January and the hottest months are May-June. The temperature varies from 5° to 17° centigrade in winters and 30° to 42° centigrade in summers. But some times winter temperature ebbs to 3° C and summer temperature shoots up to 45° C.

In the summers, which begins from March and lasts till mid June the temperature starts rising and sometimes it reaches 45° C.

Speedy westerly winds known as "Loo" lash the district in day times , but night are pleasant and cosy. After scorching heat from mid or last of June a pleasant change in weather occurs.

The south-west monsoon advances and covers the district around June-end and rainy season begins which goes till October. After the recession of south-west monsoon, the winters descend on the state from 15th October. It continues till the end of February. Though cold winds pierce through in the night , days remain bright and warm with clear blue sky during this period. Apart from few wintry downpours the weather remains dry and friendly.

Rainfall

The annual rainfall in the district was between 800 mm. and 1200 mm and in 1997 the rainfall was 1034 mm. On the average there are 49-55 rainy days ( days with rain fall of 2.5 mm or more ) in a year in the district.

Temperature

There is no meteorological observatory in the districtbut by help of observatory in Geography Department, P.G. College it is observed that May-June are the hottest month. Max. temp. ofabout 41° C and minimum is of 26° C.

January is generally the coldest month with maximum temp. of about 23° C and minimum temperature of about 9° C.

Humidity

During July and September the relative humidity are high being over 70 %. During the Post-Mansoon and winter season the humidity is high in the morning . By summer , the relative humidity become very low i.e. less than 25 %.

Geography of Ghazipur

Ghazipur district forms the eastern part of the Varanasi Division . It lies in the east and north of the Jaunpur and Varanasi district respectively between the parallels of 25° 19' and 25° 54' north latitude and 83° 4' and 83° 58' east longitude. The location is 67.50 mt. above the sea level. The length of district from East to West is 90 km. and width from North to South is 64 km.

District is segregated from state of Bihar by River Ganges from one side and Karmnasa from other side. It is bounded by Ballia and Bihar State in east, Jaunpur, Varansi and Azamgarh in west , Mau and Ballia in north and the Chandauli in south .The boundaries are generally conventional though at places they are marked by natural feature.

The Ghazipur is garlanded by River Ganga , Karmnasa and Gomti. District is economically and geographically strong due to it.. The total geographic area of this district is 3384 sq. km. Ghazipur is embellished with picturesque geographical environs.This Place is a part of Mid gangetic plain. Total area is approx.3,33,209 hectare in which 2,52,824 Hectare is for Agriculture purpose. Appox 38 % of soil is cattle field. District has no forest area.

Ghazipur at a Glance

Item Description
Area 3377 Sq. km.
Average Rain Fall 1034 ml.
Temperature Max. 42.1° C.
Temperature Min. 4° CC.
Population 30,49,337(2001)
Tehsils 5
Blocks 16
Nyay Panchyat 193
Villages 1050
Muncipal Corporation 3
Nagar Panchayat 5
Police Stations 23
Length of Canals 1490 Km
Hospitals 27
Cinemas 15
Post Offices 375
Banks 171
Nearby Airport 70 Km. ( Babatpur,Varanasi )
Degree Colleges 32
Rivers 06 ( Gangaes,Gomti, Karmnasa,Tons,Magai,Beson)
Towns of Tourist interest Ghazipur,Saidpur,Aurihar,Zamania, Muhammdabad,Dildarnagar
Main Railway Stations Ghazipur, Aurihar, Saidpur,Dildarnagar, Muhammdabad

Places to Visit

Aunrihar :

Aunrihar is situated in lat. 25° 32' N and long. 83° 11' E on the main road leading from Varanasi to Kushinagar on NH 29, about 42 Km. west from Ghazipur city and about 3.2 km. from Saidpur. This place is archaeologically interesting . One of the oldest and most important sites in the district. It is the belt having collection of mounds stretching from Saidpur to Aunrihar. The whole surface of the ground of Aunrihar is strewn with fragments , large carved stones & fine pieces of sculptures which are being utilised as common building stone. Every few yards traces of masonry wall appears.

Bahadurganj :

Bahadurganj town situated on the bank of Saryu. It is at a distance of about 35 Km. from Ghazipur. The Place is said to have been founded in 1742 AD by Sheikh Abdullah the Governor of Ghazipur , who also built a large fort here. A small fair is held here on the occasion of Ram Navami.

Bhitari (Saidpur) :

Bhitari is situated about 32 Km. form Ghazipur near Saidpur town. The name Bhitari is popularly derived from Bhimutri. The Bhitari is archaeologically very important. It is a place of Great antiquity & contains many remains of great archaeological value.

It is probable that Bhitari was at one time in hands of Buddhist but it is probably attained its chief importance during Gupta Era.. The most noticeable relic of that Epoch is the famous monolith of red sandstone standing in the fort enclosure on the block of ruff stone. It has a bell shaped capital about a meter high like those of some Akhoka pillars. On it there is an inscription referring to the reign of Skanda Gupta and his succession to Kumar Gupta.

The latter name occurs on several large brick that was excavated at the foot of the pillar in 1885. An oval silver plate bearing incription of Kumar Gupta, was found in the adjacent ruins. apart from the pillar the most valuable yields have been a seal and coins giving the Genealogy of nine generations of Gupta kings.The Bhitari was probable one of the royal residences and the influence of Gupta Kings on th the area.

Virpur (Muhammadabad) :

Virpur is situated on the bank of Ganga at a distance of about 35 km. from Ghazipur. It was the capital of Tikam Deo, a great Cheru Raja. Old coins and pieces of sculpture have been found in the fort that was built by Cheru Raja.

Dildarnagar :

Dildarnaar lies on the road from Varanasi and Zamania to Buxar and 20 Km. from Ghazipur. Between the town and the station there is a mound called Akhandha, said to have been the seat of Raja Nal and the large tank to the west is called Rani Sagar after his famous queen Damayanti. In the center of the mound are the ruins of two temples.

Gauspur :

Gauspur, a large village is situated 14 km. from Ghazipur. The former Jamidars of the place were Bhumihar who claimed descent from those who cured Raja Mandhata of his leprosy and who in consequence received a grant of land. The tank in which the Raja bathed is still pointed out on the eastern border of the village and it has ever since been the resort of the persons similarly afflicted.

The Raja's fort was at Kathot and adjacent village on the east. Both in Ghauspur and in Kathot traces of Hindu civilization are found. Large masses of stone and old bricks have been discovered and in the temple several striking pieces of Hindu sculpture are found. Oldham identified the place with the "monastery of unpierced ears" mentioned by Chinese pilgrims Hiuen Tsang and Fa Hien, hence he declared it the place of Buddhist origin.

Ghazipur :

Ghazipur town is situated in Lat.. 25 35' N and Long. 83 35" E on Varanasi Gorakhpur National Highway 29. The history of Ghazipur since the days of its traditional foundation by Sayid Masood in 1330. According to legend the ancient name of city was Gadhipur.The mound found in the city may be old dispensary stood is said to be the site of ancient mud fort , that is know as Fort of Raja Gadhi.

Saidpur :

The Saidpur town is situated on NH 29 just 30 km from Ghazipur. In the town there are two muslim dargah , one being a small domed building resting on the square pillar. The other is a larger and more remarkable structure with a massive roof of a stone. These town buildings might represents Chaiyas attached to Buddhist monastery.one of being the tomb of Sheikh Samman, who died in 1595 and other are makhdoom Shah.

Zamania :

It is situated on high bank of Ganga about 16 km. south from Ghazipur. The Town was founded in 1560 by Ali Quli Khan.The governor of Jaunpur named it after his title, Khan Zaman. According to Hindu tradition , it derived the name of Jamadagnia from the Rishi Jamadagni.The Lathiya Pillar situated 3 Km from southeast of the town is a circular monolith of polished sandstone which is 50 cm. in diameter and about 6mt. in height. There is bell-shaped capital and above this is a group of eight lions facing outwards

How to Reach

By Rail

Ghazipur City Railway Station is the most important station in district. Dildarnagar Jn, Zamania and Aurihar Junction also serves as good stations. Yusufpur, Sadat, Dullahpur, Jakhania and Ghazipur Ghat are others small stations which serves for a mass of population. Saidpur, Karimuddinpur, Gahmar, Nandganj are also some stations connected by routine trains between Varanasi-Ghazipur-Chappra route and Mughalsarai-Patna route. There isn’t any major railway station in the district and mostly people are forced to go to nearby Buxar station. If the government can make the existing stations a bit more modern and major trains start having stoppages in them then it would become quite convenient for the local people.

ins. Pawan Express, Ganga Kaveri Express, Dibrugarh Express, Harihar Express, Sadbhawna Express, Swatantra Senani and Sarnath Express are some important trains from Ghazipur City Station.

By Road

District is well connected by important cities via national highways and state highways. National Highway 29 starts from Varanasi to Gorakhpur and passes from here. National Highway 19 starts from here and terminates in Patna. National Highway 97 starts from here and terminates in Saiyedraja Distt. Chandauli, UP in order to join NH2 (Kolkatta-Delhi highway) to Ghazipur. Some major state highways starts from here which joins Lucknow, Jaunpur, Azamgarh, Buxar, Sultanpur, and Deoria.

By Air

Andhau Airport in Andhau, 9 km from City Railway Station serves as airport for city. But, it is not a public airport. It is used for V.I.P. arrivals only. Yet, Babatpur Airport, Varanasi Airport, 90 km from here is airport which serves Ghazipur.

Shahbaaz Kuli Airport in Shahbaaz Kuli, 13 km from City Railway Station. But, it is not working nowadays. It was constructed for government use in World War II. It is not be able to use in any way due to lack of proper maintenance

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