Raebareli

About Raebareli

NIPER Raebareli

The district of Raebareli, which was created by the British in 1858, is named after its headquarters town. Tradition has it that the town was founded by the Bhars and was known as Bharauli or Barauli which in course of time got converted into Bareli. The prefix, Rae, is said to be evolved from Rahi, a village 5km. west of the town. It is also said that the prefix, Rae, represents Rae, the common title of the Kayasths who were masters of the town for a considerable period of time.

Since about the beginning of the medilevel period of Indian history, the southern part of Raebareli has been known as Avadh or Subhah of Avadh. In the north it is stretched as far as the foothills of the Himalayas and in the south as far as the Ganga beyond which laid the Vatsa country. There is no doubt that the district has been civilised and settled life since very early times.

The Quit India movement was inaugurated on August 8, 1942 and the district did not lag behind any others. Again there were mass arrests, imposition of collective fines, lathi charges and police firing. At Sareni the police opened fire at an agitated crowed, killing and maiming many. The people of this district enthusiastically respond to the call of individual Satyagragha and large numbers courted arrest. At last, on August 15,1947, the country shook off the foreign yoke and achieved its long-awaited independence. Raebareli celebrated the event with befitting glee and rejoicing in every home along with the rest of the country.

History of Raebareli

History is silent about the Administrative status of the district prior to the Muslim invasion, except that it formed part of the ancient Kosla country. At the beginning of the 13th century, what is now Raebareli and the tracts around it were ruled by the Bhars who were displaced by the Rajputs and, in a few cases, by some Muslim colonist.

The south western part of the district was occupied by the Bais Rajputs, the Kanpurias, Amethias and other Rajput clans, established themselves respectively in the north east and eastern parts. During the rule of the Delhi sultans nearly the whole tract nominally formed a part of their kingdom. During the reign of Akbar the area now covered by the district was divided between the sirkars of Avadh and Lucknow in the Subah of Allahabad, the sirkar of Manikpur which included the larger part of the district as it extended from the present Mohanlalganj Pargana of district Lucknow on the north west to the Ganga on the south and to Pargana Inhauna on the north east.

The pargana of Inhauna corresponded to a Mahal of that name in the Sirkar of Avadh. The Parganas of Sareni, Khireoon and the western portion of the Pargana of Raebareli formed part of the Sirkar of Lucknow. In 1762, the Sirkars of Manikpur was included in the territory of Avadh and was placed under a Chakladar.

In 1858, it was proposed to form a new district with headquarter at RaeBareli, as a part of the Lucknow Division. The district, as then constituted, was very different in shape and size from the existing one and was divided into 4 tehsils: Raebareli, Haidergargh, Bihar and Dalmau. This arrangement resulted in a district of very irregular shape, 93 kms long and 100 kms broad. In 1966, owing to the change in the course of the Ganga the villages of Katia Ahatima, Rawatpur, Ghiya, Mau, Sultanpur Ahetmali, Kishunpur, Deomai and Lauhgi were transferred from district Fatehpur to Pargana Sareni of tehsil Dalmau in this district.

Geography of Raebareli

The district forms a part of the Gangetic plain which is of recent origin, according to geological chronology and reveal ordinary Gangetic Alluvium. The district being apart of the alluvial plain conforms to the same geological sequence as the plain itself. The only mineral of importance is Kankar. The district is also noted for its deposits of Reh and Brick Earth.

LOCATION & BOUNDARIES

The district is irregular in shape but fairly compact. It forms a part of the Lucknow Division and lies between Latitude 25° 49' North and 26° 36' North and Longitude 100° 41' East and 81° 34' East. On the North it is bounded by Tehsil Mohanlal Ganj of district Lucknow and tehsil Haidergargh of district Barabanki, on the east by tehsil Musafirkhana of district Sultanpur and on the south east by Pargana Ateha and the Kunda tehsil of district Pratapgarh. The southern boundary is formed by the Ganga which separates it from the district of Fatehpur. On the west lies the Purwa tehsil of district Unnao.

AREA

According to the 1991 census the area of the district was 4,609 km2. The area is liable to vary every year by reason of the action of the Ganga, for a small variation in the deep stream of the river makes a very noticeable change in the area of the district, which occupies the 34th place in size among the districts of the State.

TOPOGARPHY

The district as a whole is fairly compact tract of gently undulating land. The elevation varies from about 120.4 m above sea level in the north west to 86.9 m above sea level in the extreme south east, on the banks of the Ganga. The high test points are the crowns of the watersheds of the different drainage channel which serve to divide the district into five main physical units - The Ganga Khadar, The Ganag Upland, The Southern Clay Tract, The Central Tract or The Sai Upland and the Northern Clay Tarct.

Flora & Fauna of Raebareli

FLORA

About the 13th century the greater part of the district was covered with extensive forests and in the clear spaces brick dwellings and scattered bamlets of the Bhars were only evidences of human life. During the period of Second World War and thereafter in furtherance of grow more food campaign, forest in the district were recklessly cut down.

The areas of such land already planted with trees like Dhak, Khair, Babul, Shishum, Neem, Vilayti Babul, Arjuna, Kanji, Siras, Eucalyptus, Mango and Jamun are 544 hectares in tehsil Raebareli, 500 Hectares in tehsil Salon, 348 hectares in tehsil Dalmau and 61 hectares in tahsil Maharajganj.

GROVES

Groves in the district consist mostly of Mango and Mahua trees. Tahsil Salon had the largest percentage of its area under groves viz: 8.5%. In 1903 the area covered by the groves diminished to 33,412 hectares. In 1968-69 the area under groves in the district was 28,472 hectares, of which an area of 9,056 hectares lay in tahsil Dalmau, 7,557 hectares in tahsil Maharajganj, 6,611 hectares in tahsil Salon and 5,247 hectares in tahsil Raebareli.

FAUNA

Tigers and Wild Buffaloes were found in the Tamarisk jungles and along the banks of the Ganga. The Wild Bear is seldom seen. The Indian Antelope has been declared a protected species in the district.

BIRDS

The birds of the district are similar to those of the adjoining districts. The major games of birds found are several varieties of Ducks, Partridges and Pigeons. The pink headed has become extinct.Green Pigeons are becoming rare due to felling of fruit and berry trees. The Red Headed Parrot was formerly extensively netted for the sake of its plumage and their skin were sent to Kanpur for export to Europe.

REPTILES

Different varieties of snakes and other reptiles are found everywhere in the district especially in the rural areas. Some snakes are harmless but some are deadly e.g.,the Cobra, Krait and Rat snake. The other reptiles found in the district are the Chameleon, Geeko and Monitor Lizard, at the last, becoming extinct due to netting and shooting, protected species.

FISH

Fish are found in the rivers, ponds, canals and artificial reservoirs of the district. About 36 species of fish have been found in this district so far, the major being the Rohu (Labeo Rohita), Tengra (Mystas Seenghala), Parhan (Wallagonia Attu), Mangur (Clarius Batrachus), Saul(Ophiocephelus spp.), Nain(Cirrhina Mrigala).

Places To Visit

Samaspur Bird Sanctuary :

Samaspur Bird Sanctuary is situated in Rohaniya development block of the district, about 122 km from Lucknow on Lucknow-Varanasi highway. It was established in 1987 on a total area of about 799.371 hectare. Nearest railway station is Unchahar and the nearest airport is Fursatganj, Raebareli.The best period of visit is from November to March. More than 250 varieties of birds can be seen here.Some of the birds come here from a distance of 5000 km which include Greleg Googe, Pin Tail, Common Teel, Vision, Showler, Surkhab etc. Local birds include Comb Duck, Whistling Teel, Spot Bill, Spoon Bill, King Fisher, Vulture etc. 12 varieties of fishes are there in the lake at Samaspur.

Dalmau :

Dalmau is situated on the banks of Holy Ganga and is famous since ancient times. It has been the Historical town of the district. Prominent places at Dalmau are King Dal's Fort, Bara Math, Mahesh Giri Math, Nirala Memorial Institute, a well made by Ebrahim Sharki, Palace of Nawab Shuza-ud-daula, Baithak Of Alhaa Udal, Dalmau Pump Canal etc.

Indira Gandhi Memorial Botanical Garden :

Indira Gandhi Memorial Botanical Garden was established in the year 1986 in order to restore the ecological balance. The garden is situated on the left side of Lucknow-Varanasi highway. This garden is situated on the northern bank of Sai River. In the west of the garden Raebareli- Allahabad railway line is running which is parallel to Lucknow- Varanasi highway.

Behta Bridge :

This Bridge is situated in the outskirts of the Raebareli city. The important thing of this Bridge is that at this place Sharda Canal crosses the Sai river. An aqueduct has been constructed and the canal flows in the duct.

Jais:

Jais is an ancient city of the district. Once upon a time it was the capital of King Udyan. Malik Mohammad Jaisi a great poet belonged to this place. In his memory "Jaisi Samrak" was constructed here.

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