Sultanpur

About Sultanpur

Vijethuwa Mahaviran Temple Sultanpur

The city of Sultanpur lies in latitude 26 degree 15 minutes north and longitude 82 degree 05 minutes east on the right bank of Gomti. It is about 61 km south of Faizabad, 42 km north of Pratapgarh and 138 km south-east of Lucknow.

The original town was situated on the left bank of the Gomti. It is said to have been founded by Kusa, son of Rama, and to have been named after him Kusapura or Kusabhavanpur. This ancient city was identified by General Cunnigham.Hiuentsang, the Chinese traveller has mentioned that Kusapur had a dilapidated stupa of Ashoka and it is the place where Buddha taughtfor six months. There are Buddhist remains still visible at Mahmoodpur , a village8 km distant to the north-west of Sultanpur.

The town subsequently fell into the hands of Bhars, who retained it until it was taken from them by Musalmans in the 12th century. About seven hundred and fifty years ago, it is said, two brothers, Sayid Muhammad and Sayid Ala-ud-Din, horse dealer by profession, visited eastern Awadh and offered some horses for sale to Bhar Chieftains of Kusabhavanpur, who seized the horses and put the two brothers to death. This came to the ear of Ala-ud-Din Khilji, who would not allow such an outrage to pass unpunished. Gathering a mighty force, therefore, he set out for Kusabhavanpur and took revenge by killing most of the Bhars by strategy adopted after a long drawn seige.

Kusabhavanpur was reduced to ashes and the town of Sultanpur, so called from the rank of the victorrose to ruins. This town was finally raised to the ground during the military operations connected with the reoccupation of the province in consequence of the inhabitants having been concerned in the murder of British officers at the outbreak of the freedom struggle of 1857.

Before annexation a military station and cantonment were established on the right bank of the river in a village then known as Girghit but more commonly called by officials Sultanpur or Chhaoni Sarkar and by the rustic population Kampu or the Camp.

The present town of the Sultanpur has been developed at this site. The District has famous Sitakund, where Sita bathed as she accompanied her husband (the Loard Rama) on his exile. Bathing fairs are held there in Chaitra and Kartika.

History of Sultanpur

The Sultanpur district Gazeteer published in 1903 A.D. throws some light on the history and originof the district. It is believed that about 76.16 % of the total land of the district was owned by Rajputs of various clans Among them the Rajkumars along-held over one-fourth of the district, while their kinsmen, the Bachgotis and Rajwars owned 11.4 and 3.4 percent, respectively.

The Rajkumars were the proprietors of nearly the whole of Aldemau. Their chief was the Raja of Dera. The head of Bachgotis was the Raja of Kurwar while the taluqdar of Samrathpur represented another branch of the family. The chief of Rajwars was the taluqdar of Pratabpur. Another member of the Rajwars family was the Raja of Hasanpur. Allied to him were the families of Maniarpur and Gangeo and between them they owned a large portion of the central area.

Next to Bachgotis and their kinsmen come the Bandhalgotis, who owned almost the whole of Amethi pargana. Their head was the Raja of Amethi while the taluqdar Shahgarh belonged to the same clan. The Rajputs with large properties in the district were the Bhale Sultans who owned 4.72 percent, the Kanhapurias with 4.7 percent, and the Bais with 2.8 percent. Of the Bhale Sultans half were Hindus and half Mussalmans. They were dwelling in the north west corner of the district in the parganas of Isauli, Musafirkhana and Jagdishpur. The Kanhpurias were chiefly confined to pargana Gaura Jamo, almost the whole of which belonged to them. The Bais were scattered about in small groups.

Another important branch of the land owning clans was the house of Raj Sah. Raj Sah had three sons, Ishri Singh, Chakrasen Singh and Rup Chand. From Ishari Singh, after nine generations came Bijai Chand, who had three sons. Harkaran Deo. Jit Rai, and Jionarain. Harkaran Deo was the ancestor of Nanemau taluqdar; the descendants of Jit Rai were the owners of Meopur Dahla, Meopur Dhaurua, and Bhadaiyan; and from Jionarain descended the Raja of Dera. The fourth descendant of Jionarain led the the first of the six colonies of Rajkumars across the Gomti and planted himself at Dera on the banks of the river. This house became one of the main branches of the Bachgotis of Sultanpur.

At the beginning of the nineteenth century Babu Madho Singh, eleventh in descent from Jionarain was the rular of the estate which consisted of 101 villages. Babu Madho Singh who is remembered as the successful leader and who managed his property well died in 1823. He was succeeded by his widow, Thakurain Dariao Kunwar, a most remarkable woman, who through toil and turmoil not only bravely held her own, but added to her estates than her husband had done in his life time.

The direct line of succession had ended with the death of Thakurain's husband, Babu Madho singh. The next male heir was Babu Rustam Sah, whom Thakurain disliked. Babu Rustam Sah was in the service of Maharaja Man Singh, the nazim of the day and with his help succeded in capturing Thakurain and made her write a deed in his favour. That formidable woman, whose pride was hurt grieved for a few months and died. Rustam Sah was given the possession of the property by the nazim. Rustam Sah came to know later that the nazim had ulterior motives in helping him.

A fight would have followed and Rustam would have killed nazim, but for a pandit who advised him that the time was not propitious. Later, Rustam Sah sought asylum across the British border and was made the taluqdar of Dera, which consisted of 336 villages. Rustam Sah rendered excellent service during the Mutiny. He died in 1877 and was succeded by his nephew, Raja Rudra Pratap Singh.

Bariar Singh, the youngest brother of Rustam Sah, received an estate of 20 villages and three pattis in the parganas of Baraunsa and Aldemau in return for services rendered during the Mutiny. This property was known as Damodra or Sultanpur.

Geography of Sultanpur

Geographic area of the district is 4436 sq km. It may be called an agrarian area as agriculture is the main occupation of the people. Sultanpur, the head quarter of the district is the only town of importance having municipal board. Other town areas are Amethi, Musafirkhana, Dostpur, Kadipur and Koeripur. There are six tehsils and twenty two development blocks which form the district. Namely, Sadar (Sultanpur), Kadipur, Musafirkhana, Amethi, Gauriganj and newly formed Lambhua are the tehsils. There are one municipality and five town areas in the district

Climate of Sultanpur

The climate of Sultanpur is semi-arid with very hot summer and equally cold winter season. During the summer months i.e.May-June, the maximum temperature goes beyond 44 degrees Celsius and in winter months of Dec.-Jan. it is around 3-4 degrees.

Sultanpur at a Glance

Geographic Area 4436 Sq.km
Number of Tehsils 7
Nyaya Panchayats 187
Gram Sabhas 1262
Villages 2531
City and Town Areas 7
Municipal Corporations 0
Municipal Council 1
Cantonment Area 0
Nagar Panchayat 5
Census Towns 1

The Gomti River

The river Gomti originates from about 3 km east of Pilibhit town of the same district at an height of 200 meters. The river drains the area lying between river Ramganga and Sharda in the upper reaches and Ganga and Ghaghra at the lower reaches. After flowing southwards through the districts of Lucknow, Barabhanki, Sultanpur, Faizabad and Jaunpur, it confluences with River Ganga.

This river is the chief drainage line of the district and is in fact the only stream of any importance. In pargana Jagdishpur it winds along the whole of the northern boundary, separating this district from Barabanki and Faizabad, and receiving all the drainage of the northern portion of the pargana by various natural water resources

Along the upper reaches down to Sathin the banks are high and sometimes precipitous, and the bed is well marked. South of Sathin the river opens out, the high banks recede, and from Mau Atwara onwards the low lands are subject to damage from flooding. South-eastwards from Jagdishpur the river separates the two parganas of Isauli on the north and and Musafirkhana on the south.

Here, again, the there is fair extent of lowland, and the river seems to have altered its course in the past, and looks as if it once ran in a fairly direct line from Fatehpur. At present, however, it winds along in a fairly well defined bed between stretches of low lying grounds on either side. On the north the high cliff are scored with deep ravines, and on either bank there is much irregular broken ground.

Proceeding in the same direction, the Gomti separates pargana Miranpur on the south-west from Baraunsa on the north-east. Here, too, it ordinarily runs between well defined banks, although in the west of Baraunsa there are some low lying riparian strips of cultivation. The banks on the south side in pargana Miranpur are generally of a similar nature, but in places they sink and the soil is crumbly, considerable damage being done in years of heavy rainfall.

In the east of this pargana the scour from the uplands is considerable, and large ravines have formed, while here and there the constant erosion has caused much land to be thrown out of cultivation.The river in these two parganas passes by Chandaur and Sultanpur.Hence it passes on towards the south-east and separates Aldemau from Chanda, passing Paparghat, Dera, Dhopap, Aldemau, Kadipur and Dwarka. In this part of the district the course of the river is tortuous and irregular.

In Aldemau the ground in the vicinity of village Katwari is much cut up by ravines, passing through a block of high light land, which easily lends itself to erosion. In Chanda the banks are similar, being high and in places precipitous. In the north of the pargana where the ground along the river is light and high-lying, ravines have frequently been formed and some land has gone out of cultivation in consequence. The drainage of the land in its neighbourhood is carried down to the river by numerous natural channels.

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